Regulation D Offerings: Issuers, Investors, and Intermediaries
The Reg D offering market is similar to
the public offering market in capital raised and has been growing
rapidly over recent years. The proceeds from Reg D offerings sold
between 2021 and 2023 total $6.2 trillion, 23% more than the capital
raised in registered offerings over the same period and a 86%
increase over the proceeds from Reg D offerings sold during 2011-2013. Reg D securities have recently been sold to more investors
per offering with a less amount sold per investor, suggesting an
increasing retail preference for unregistered securities. Intermediaries
play an important role in reaching retail investors. Offerings
sold by broker-dealers with more retail clients and offerings sponsored
by investment advisers with more wealthy individual clients
are purchased by more investors per offering and raise less capital
per investor. Investors of unregistered offerings must be wary of
intermediariy misconduct and conflicts of interest. Broker-dealers
that receive more commissions and specialize in selling unregistered
offerings tend to receive more customer complaints stemming from
unregistered securities. Investment advisers with non-fund clients
are more likely to disclose conflicts of interest in regulatory filings
when they sponsor Reg D offerings, indicating that they allocate
client funds in self-sponsored unregistered securities.
Diversifying a Concentrated Stock Position in 2023
Twenty years ago, we evaluated brokerage firms' recommendation that investors
should diversify a concentrated stock position by buying additional stocks on margin[McCann and Luo, 2003]
Twenty years later, some brokers and advisors continue to recklessly recommend
that their clients borrow against concentrated stock positions and purchase additional
stocks to diversify. In this note, we use recent stock market returns to update our previous work which used data from the 1990s. We also extend the analysis to cover a larger universe of stocks and employ more sophisticated simulations. Our updates and enhancements show that this "hold, borrow, and buy some more" strategy remains inconsistent with basic principles of prudent investment management; leveraged diversification perversely increases risk and or lowers expected returns.
Further on the Returns to Non-Traded REITs
Further on the Returns to Non-traded REITs, updates our 2015 paper including 51 additional nontraded REITs that came into existence after May 1, 2015 and either had had a liquidity event or updated their NAVs between May 1, 2015 and December 31, 2019. We documented that returns to nontraded REITs continue to fall substantially short of the returns to traded REITs. For all 140 nontraded REITs, the shortfall relative to traded REITs was at least $59.2 billion. This systematic underperformance was observed for the additional nontraded REITs launched since May 1, 2015 as well as for the nontraded REITs in existence on May 1, 2015. We also documented nontraded REITs' returns were lower than traded REIT returns for capital raised by nontraded REITs in every calendar quarter.
UBS's YES Was Not Same Iron Condor Product as at Credit Suisse
Monthly returns from the Credit Suisse and UBS time periods - including for subperiods of similar characteristics UBS blames for the 2018 losses - show these two programs were very different and that UBS's program was much riskier and had much more directionality than the Credit Suisse program. We find market conditions in 2018 when YES lost 18.44% were much less dramatic than in 2008 when Credit Suisse lost only 2.42%
Impact of Zoom on FINRA Claimants
SLCG presents a new study on the impacts that Zoom and other virtual meeting platforms have on the process of FINRA hearings, citing evidence that the newly updated process has a negative effect on those who are claiming.
UBS's Yield Enhancement Strategy ("YES") Returns - and then the Losses - Were Caused by Equity Market Exposure
UBS marketed YES as market-neutral based on a combination of four options is sometimes referred to as an "Iron Condor". UBS accounts subjected to YES treatment suffered losses of 12% to 14% in December 2018 when the S&P 500 dropped 9.2% because the overlay was more than 100%
In this paper the authors we explain the option basics necessary to understand the YES strategy and illustrate how UBS actually implemented the strategy with predictably disastrous results. They also present how UBS described the strategy in its marketing materials.
Puerto Rico Securities Arbitration Settlements and Awards Likely to Exceed $1.25 Billion (Updated May 15, 2019)
SLCG releases its updated Puerto Rico Securities Arbitration Report showing over $600 million paid out so far in settlements and awards with a similar amount likely to be paid out in coming years as a result of brokerage firm customers losses in Puerto Rico.
Reporte de Arbitrajes de Valores en Puerto Rico: entre Acuerdos Transaccionales y Laudos Arbitrales seguramente se excederá de $1.25 billon (15 de may de 2019)
SLCG publica su Informe de Arbitraje de Valores de Puerto Rico actualizado que muestra más de $600 millones pagados hasta el momento en acuerdos y adjudicaciones con una cantidad similar que probablemente se pagará en los próximos años como resultado de las pérdidas de clientes de la firma de corretaje en Puerto Rico.
Rating Brokerage Firms by Their Complaint Histories Rather Than by Their Brokers' Histories
In our previous research, we ranked brokerage firms based on the proportion of their brokers on December 31, 2015 who had been associated with at least one resolved customer complaint. That approach assigns a higher ranking to a firm if a larger proportion of its current brokers have one or more resolved customer complaint in their career, regardless whether the complaints occurred at their current employer or at a prior employer.
Our new research ranks brokerage firms based on the frequency of customer complaints over conduct at each firm, including both resolved and pending. That is, we rank firms based on their history rather than on their current brokers' histories.
Puerto Rico Securities Arbitration Settlements and Awards Sure to Exceed $1 Billion (Updated November 15, 2018)
In 2013, a shrinking economy and the government's loss of continued access to capital markets necessary to make interest payments, refinance principal coming due and to fund an unsustainable government deficit caused Puerto Rico tax exempt bond prices to fall substantially.
Puerto Rico brokerage firms' customers held poorly diversified securities accounts, concentrated in Puerto Rico municipal bonds or closed end funds that held leveraged portfolios of Puerto Rico municipal bonds. Often these accounts were further leveraged using margin debt, lines of credit or proceeds from non-purpose loans recycled through third-party banks.